This project develops the first material camera, or MatCam, that outputs a per-pixel label of object material and its properties that can be used in visual computing tasks. In the everyday real world there are a vast number of materials that are useful to discern including concrete, metal, plastic, velvet, satin, water layer on asphalt, carpet, tile, wood, and marble. A device for identifying materials has important implications in developing new technologies. For example, a mobile robot may use a MatCam to determine whether the terrain is grass, gravel, pavement, or snow in order to optimize mechanical control. In e-commerce, the material composition of objects can be tagged by a MatCam for advertising and inventory. The potential applications are limitless in areas such as robotics, digital architecture, human-computer interaction, intelligent vehicles and advanced manufacturing. Furthermore, material maps have foundational importance in nearly all vision algorithms including segmentation, feature matching, scene recognition, image-based rendering, context-based search, and object recognition and motion estimation. The camera brings material recognition to the broader scientific and engineering communities, in a similar way that depth cameras are currently used in many fields outside of computer vision.